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knowin' beer&wine&champaign&brandy~e.t.c

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Beer, alcoholic beverage made from cereal grains, usually barley, but also corn, rice, wheat, and oats, an alcohol content of 2 to 6 percent. Over 70 styles of beer are available today.

The two major categories of beer are ales and lagers, and the yeast used in fermentation determines the differences between the two.

Ales are fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae at warm temperatures for short periods of time, typically a week. This yeast ferments in warmer temperatures to produce a fruity flavor that characterizes ale.

Lagers are usually drier, crisper, and less fruity in taste than ales. Lagers are fermented with Saccharomyces uvarum at cooler temperatures for longer periods up to two weeks

Popular German beers include Munich dunkle,Oktoberfest, and bock beer.The Image Works/Lee Snider

Porter and stout are dark ales that are nearly black in color and have a hearty flavor and dense body.

Mild ale, originally produced in England, has a gentle, sweet taste that is meant to quench the thirst. It is usually tawny to dark in color.

Bitter ale is a popular style of British ale that ranges in color from light to dark. It tastes dry and bitter because the hops are added early in the cooking process, enabling the bitter oils to impart a strong flavor.

Pale ale is a clear beer with a dry, malty, nutty flavor. It has a less pronounced hop flavor than bitter ale.

Brown ale, in contrast, is deep amber or darker in color and may have a strong, dry, nutty taste or be somewhat sweet and fruity, depending on how it is brewed.

Barleywine has a bronze to mahogany color and a heavy, fruity taste. Although it is an ale, it may have been named wine originally because of its high alcohol content, which, at around 10 percent, is closer to wine than beer.

Pilsner, the most popular of all the lagers, originated in the Bohemian town of Plzeň in 1842. It is a clear, golden lager with a dry but soft malty taste and flowery hop aroma.

Dark lager, also known as Munich dunkel, was first produced in Munich, Germany. It is a dark brown brew with a spicy, malty taste with flavors of chocolate and licorice.

Vienna-style Märzen, or Oktoberfest, is a lager that ranges in color from amber-red to bronze or copper and has a soft malty taste and smell.

Bock beer is a full-bodied, smooth lager with a somewhat sweet taste. It is usually dark in color and may have an alcohol content as high as 8 percent.

Doppel bock is a variation of bock beer that is very dark and strong. Bock and doppel bock beer are usually brewed in the winter and consumed in the spring.

Light beer and ice beer are typically lagers.

Light beer contains fewer calories and usually less alcohol—about 2 percent—than regular beer. It is produced by using a lower grain-to-water ratio during the brewing process.

Ice beer, which has a higher alcohol content, is made by cooling a beer to below freezing and then filtering out the ice crystals that form.

California common beer, marketed under the brand name Steam Beer, is produced in very shallow fermentation vessels using lager yeast but fermented at warmer, ale, temperatures.

Wheat beer is brewed by mixing wheat with barley—usually in equal parts. The result is a light-colored and somewhat cloudy beer with a refreshing, tart flavor. Wheat beer typically contains less alcohol than other types of beer.

German-style hefeweizen is an unfiltered wheat beer. Additional yeast is added to the bottle before it is capped to enhance its flavor and cloudy appearance.

Lambic beer, brewed primarily in Belgium, is a type of wheat beer fermented using only wild airborne yeast.

Rye beer, as its name suggests, is made with rye, but it may also be combined with oats. Estonia and Finland make a traditional rye beer called sahti that is seasoned with juniper as well as hops. Rye beer is native to Eastern, Central, and Baltic Europe but more recently has been produced by breweries in the Pacific Northwest of the United States.

Sake, a Japanese beer made from fermented rice, is clear in color and tastes and looks more like wine than beer. It contains approximately 15 percent alcohol. Sake is typically served warm to enhance its flavors.

Wine, alcoholic beverage made from the juice of grapes.Although grapes are the most common fruit used to make wine, wine is also made from the fermented juice of pears, apples, berries, and even flowers such as dandelions.
Wine naturally contains about 85 to 89 percent water, 10 to 14 percent alcohol,

Three basic groups of wines are most easily distinguishable for the consumer: table wines, sparkling wines, and fortified wines.

table wines contain between 10 and 14 percent alcohol

In wine-producing regions outside of Europe, particularly California and Australia, table wines are often classified by the grape variety they are made from. At least 75 percent of the grapes used to produce the wine must be of the named grape variety. Chardonnay, for example, is wine made from at least 75 percent chardonnay grapes. Wines classified this way are sometimes called varietals, and include wines such as riesling, cabernet sauvignon, and merlot.

The French system of Appellation d’Origine Contrôlée labels wines based on their geographical pedigree. The most renowned wine-producing regions in France, and possibly the world, are Burgundy, in central France, and Bordeaux, a region on the southwestern coast of the country.

Sparkling wine is made from table wine that has undergone a second fermentation. The wine maker adds a measured amount of sugar and fresh yeast to the dry wine. This can happen in a closed tank, or directly in the bottle, which is the way the most famous sparkling wine, French champagne, is produced. The yeast ferments the added sugar, but this time the carbon dioxide gas remains in the sealed bottle, creating carbonation. When the sparkling wine is poured into a glass, the gas bubbles to the surface.

Fortified wines contain additional alcohol and are usually consumed in small amounts as aperitifs before meals or dessert wines after a meal. Popular examples are port and sherry.

In port wine making, which originated in Portugal, the grapes are crushed and the fermentation started but then stopped by the addition of more alcohol, which kills the yeast. The resulting wine is sweet and has an alcohol content that is 5 to 10 percent higher than table wine.

Originally from Spain, sherry is made by adding alcohol to a young dry wine in an oak barrel intentionally filled only halfway. Special yeasts called flor yeast grow on the surface of the wine and create the distinct nutty flavor characteristic of sherry

Brandy is made from wine but is classified as distilled liquor, not as wine. Brandy is distilled from wine to concentrate the alcohol in the wine. To make a distillate, wine is heated in an enclosed copper pot until it boils and the alcohol evaporates. The alcoholic vapor passes through a coiled pipe where it is cooled down until it forms a liquid again, or condenses. After distillation the brandy is aged. Bottled brandy typically contains 40 percent alcohol and has been aged in oak barrels for several years.

In summary..

*beer contains 2-6% alcohol. some varieties may reach 8-10%
*wines generally contain 10-14% alcohol. eg. chardonnay, burgundy..

fortified wine like port and sherry contain 20-30%alcohol.
*champagne is most famous example of sparkling wine (10-14% alcohol)
*brandy is distillrd from wine,typically contains 40% alcohol.



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